Article published by : American CPR on Friday, September 25, 2020 - Viewed 52 times

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Category : Health & Fitness

The Basic Steps of CPR



CPR is most successful when administered as quickly as possible. It should only be performed when a person shows no signs of life or when they are:

-unconscious
-unresponsive
-not breathing or not breathing normally

It is not essential to search for a pulse when a person is found with no signs of life. It can be difficult to find a person’s pulse sometimes and time can be wasted searching. If CPR is necessary, it must be started without delay.

The basic steps for performing CPR can be used for adults, children and infants. They are based on guidelines updated in 2010 that are easy to follow and remember. This information is only a guide and not a substitute for attending a CPR course.

The basic steps are:

D – Dangers?
R – Response?
S – Send for help
A – Open airway
B – Normal breathing
C – Start CPR
D – Attach defibrillator (AED).

1. Dangers?

Check for dangers. Consider why the person appears to be in trouble – is there gas present or have they been electrocuted? Might they be drunk or drug-affected and consequently a hazard to you? Approach with care and do not put yourself in danger. If the person is in a hazardous area (such as on a road), it is okay to move them as gently as possible to protect both your and their safety.

2. Response?

Look for a response. Is the victim conscious? Gently shake them and shout at them, as if you are trying to wake them up. If there is no response, get help.

3. Open airway

Check the airway. It is reasonable to gently roll the person on their back if you need to. Gently tilt their head back, open their mouth and look inside. If fluid and foreign matter is present, gently roll them onto their side. Tilt their head back, open their mouth and very quickly remove any foreign matter (for example, chewing gum, false teeth, vomit). It is important not to spend much time doing this, as performing CPR is the priority. Chest compressions can help to push foreign material back out of the upper airway.

4. Normal breathing?

Check for breathing – look, listen and feel for signs of breathing. If the person is breathing normally, roll them onto their side. If they are not breathing, or not breathing normally, go to step 6. The person in cardiac arrest may make occasional grunting or snoring attempts to breathe and this is not normal breathing. If unsure of whether a person is breathing normally, start CPR as per step six.
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